Thursday, August 07, 2014

Warrior, Poet, Priest (or "Mechanism and Morale")

“My life is not important to me. Other people’s life is important. My life is only important if me can help plenty people. If my life is just me, my own security, then me no want it. My life is the people, it really is.”
“Government, politics . . . I don’t know what that is. If it’s a stand up an’ talk for my rights, I know what that is. An’ I don’t care who the guy is because my right is my right. Like my life. You know ? All I have is my life.”
“I didn’t come to borrow, I came to conquer. I didn’t come to borrow, I came to conquer.”
--Bob Marley
The arrival of a new radical idea in the minds of men is the sign of a great coming change in human life and society ; it may be combated, the reaction of the old idea may triumph for a time, but the struggle never leaves either the thoughts and sentiments or the habits and institutions of the society as they were when it commenced. Whether it knows it or not, it has gone forward and the change is irretrievable. Either new forms replace the old institutions or the old while preserving the aspect of continuity have profoundly changed within, or else these have secured for themselves a period of greater rigidity, increasing corruption, progressive deterioration of spirit and waning of real force which only assures them in the future a more complete catastrophe and absolute disappearance. The past can arrive at the most at a partial survival or an euthaniasia, provided it knows how to compromise liberally with the future.
One becomes nothing but a medium for supermighty influences. That which happens can only be termed revelation ; that is to say, that suddenly, with unutterable certainty and delicacy, something becomes visible and audible and shakes one and rends one to the depth of one’s being. One hears, one does not seek ; one takes, one does not ask who it is that gives ; like lightning a thought flashes out, of necessity, complete in form . . . It is rapture . . a state of being entirely outside oneself . . . Everything happens in the highest degree involuntarily, as in a storm of feeling, freedom, of power, of divinity.
Awakened to a a profounder self-knowledge than his first mental idea of himself, Man begins to conceive some formula and to perceive some appearance of the thing that he has to affirm.
The first and most important rule to observe in order to accomplish these purposes, is to use our entire forces with the utmost energy.
The two great components of the future element of man are Indian spirituality and Western intellectuality.
These pioneers will consider nothing as alien to them, nothing as outside their scope. For every part of human life has to be taken up by the spiritual—not only the intellectual, the aesthetic, the ethical, but the dynamic, the vital, the physical.
There is a period, more or less prolonged, of internal effort and struggle in which the individual will has to reject the darkness and distortions of the lower nature and to put itself resolutely or vehemently on the side of the divine Light.
People cling firmly to the belief that reality is the world outside of the mind and the individual is one small speck on a global spaceship. Actually, it’s the opposite. The only real reality you can be sure about is in your own perceptions. If the universe exists, it exists inside your own mind and the minds of others.
A poet’s description of destiny : that which exalts a man although it crushes him.
All power is impossible to those whose pursuits ruled by sentimentality, love, envy, power-lust, revenge, prejudice, hatred, justice, alcohol, drugs, or sexual desire. Sustained power is impossible to those who repress their irrational longings into their subconscious only to have them return in compulsive, out-of-control behavior that inevitably leads to their ruin. Although often clothed in the rationalization of power calculation, compulsive behavior is, at root, the emotionalism of a frightened child, desperately projecting his inner agony into a reality he is afraid to understand, much less master.
They were able to master their feelings ; and where the military purpose required it they could show that ruthlessness which is so essential in a real warrior. Deep as their feelings were, their minds kept their poise. “The great strength of character required to accomplish this is evident. Men of strong feeling, therefore, must also have great strength of character.”
I mean by work action done for the Divine and more and more in union with the Divine—for the Divine alone and nothing else. Naturally that is not easy at the beginning, any more than deep meditation and luminous knowledge are easy or even true love and bhakti are easy. But like the others it has to be begun in the right spirit and attitude, with the right will in you, then all the rest will come. Works done in this spirit are quite effective as bhakti or contemplation.
By constant referring of all one’s will and works to the Divine, love and adoration grow, the psychic being comes forward. By the reference to the Power above, we can come to feel it above and it’s descent and the opening to an increasing consciousness and knowledge. Finally, works, bhakti and knowledge go together and self-perfection becomes possible—what we call the transformation of the nature. These results certainly do not come all at once ; they come more or less slowly, more or less completely according to the condition and growth of the being. There is no royal road to the divine realization.
War always has and always will require the best thinking and the most consummate personality development a person is capable of. This is, of course, directly contrary to the negative, leveling, partisan spirit which today poisons our modern life, and which hates, above all things, an independant, strong, soldierly spirit.
It is probable indeed that they are the result or rather the inseparable accompaniments, not of illusion, but of a wrong relation, wrong because it is founded on a false view of what the individual is in the universe and therefore a false attitude both towards God and Nature, towards self and environment. Because that which he has become is out of harmony both with what the world of his habitation is and what he himself should be and is to be, therefore man is subject to these contradictions of the secret Truth of things. In that case they are not the punishment of a fall, but the conditions of a progress. They are the first elements of the work he has to fulfil, the price he has to pay for the crown he hopes to win, the narrow way by which Nature escapes out of Matter into consciousness ; they are at once her ransom and her stock.
A mastery of the senses, an ability to do without all that they hanker after, is the first condition of the true soul life.
Sometimes these things which change the situation in question so greatly are overlooked until they are forced on your attention. Then it is too late, and you see yourself reduced to being ridiculous.
Universe is a diffusion of the divine All in infinite Space and Time, the individual its concentration within the limits of Space and Time.
Courage, that is the temporary domination of will over instinct, brings about victory.
A divine perfection of the human being is our aim. We must know then, first, what are the essential elements that constitute man’s total perfection ; secondly, what we mean by a divine as distinguished from a human perfection of our being. That man as a being is capable of self-development and of some approach at least to an ideal standard of perfection which his mind is able to conceive, fix before it and pursue, is common ground to all thinking humanity, though it may be only the minority who concern themselves with this possiblity as providing the one most important aim of life. But by some the ideal is conceived as a mundane change, by others as a religious conversion.
The mundane perfection is sometimes conceived of as something outward, social, a thing of action, a more rational dealing with our fellow-man and our environment, a better and more efficient citizenship and discharge of duties, a better, richer, kindlier and happier way of living, with a more just and more harmonious associated enjoyment of the opportunities of existence. By others again a more inner and subjective ideal is cherished, a clarifying and raising of the intelligence, will and reason, a heightening and ordering of power and capacity in the nature, a nobler ethical, a richer aesthetic, a finer emotional, a much healthier and better-governed vital and physical being. Sometimes one element is stressed, almost to the exclusion of the rest ; sometimes, in wider and and more well-balanced minds, the whole harmony is envisaged as a total perfection. A change of education and social institutions is the outward means adopted or an inner self-training and development is preferred as the true instrumentation. Or the two aims may be clearly united, the perfection of the inner individual, the perfection of the outer living.
A factual survey of the religious and moral phenomena of our age shows indeed that, along with the explosion of the forces of negative polarization, there appeared and are growing the forces of a positive religious and moral polarization. Though at the present time the forces of negative polarization are still prevalent, those of the positive polarization are already quite visible.
“The worst of the beasts” in man has been unleashed to a degree hardly rivaled in the past, and Man the Killer and Destroyer has become the “star” of the historical tragedy of our time.
The personal will of the Sadhaka has first to seize on the egoistic energies and turn them towards the light and the right ; once turned, he has still to train them to recognize that always, always to accept, always to follow that. Progressing, he learns, still using the personal will, personal effort, personal energies, to employ them as representatives of the higher Power and in conscious obedience to the higher Influence. Progressing yet farther, his will, effort, energy become no longer personal and separate, but activities of that higher Power and Influence at work in the individual. But there is still a sort of gulf of distance which necessitates an obscure process of transit, not always accurate, sometimes even very distorting, between the divine Origin and the emerging human current.
Plato thought that courage ranked with wisdom, temperence (moderation) and justice among the four chief attributes of the virtuous man.
With a great general there is never a continuity of great actions which can be attributed to chance and good luck ; they are always the result of calculation and genius.
Experience is not continuous today. It must be carefully gathered. Study of it should be careful and the results should stimulate reflection, especially in men of of experience.
Knowledge is the foundation of successful leadership. Knowledge has three aspects. The first, fundamental knowledge, deals with studying science, history and human nature ; in other words, learning the basics of the art of leadership. The second, strategic knowledge, concerns understanding the needs and goals of both constituents and competitors and planning effective operations to reach objectives. The third, tactical knowledge, focuses on uncovering evolving threats and opportunites, and responding swiftly and appropriately to them, within the strategic framework, through innovation and improvisation.
The problem of thought therefore is to find out the right idea and the right way of harmony ; to restate the ancient and eternal spiritual truth of the Self so that it shall re-embrace, permeate, dominate, transfigure the mental and physcial life ; to develop the most profound and vital methods of psychological self-discipline and self-development so that the mental and physcial life of man may express the spiritual life through the utmost possible expansion of its own richness, power and complexity ; and to seek for the means and motives by which his external life, his society and his institutions may remould themselves progressively in the truth of the spirit and develop towards the utmost possible harmony of individual freedom and social unity. This is our ideal and out search.
In the process of this change there must first be by the very necessity of the effort two stages of its working. First, there will be the personal endeavor of the human being, as soon as he becomes aware by his soul, mind, heart of this divine possibility and turns towards it as the true object of life, to prepare himself for it and to get rid of all in him that belongs to a lower working, of all that stands in the way of his opening to the spiritual truth and its power, so as to possess by this liberation his spiritual being and turn all his natural movements into free means of its self-expression. It is by this turn that the self-conscious Yoga aware of its aim begins ; there is a new awakening and an upward change in the life motive. So long as there is only an intellectual, ethical and other self-training for the now normal purposes of life which does not travel beyond the ordinary circle of working of mind, life and body, we are still only in the obscure and yet unillumined prepatory Yoga of Nature ; we are still in pursuit of only an ordinary human perfection. A spiritual desire of the Divine and of the divine perfection, of a unity with him in all our being and a spiritual perfection in all our nature, is the effective sign of this change, the precursory power of a great integral conversion of our being and living.
By personal effort a precursory change, a preliminary conversion can be effected ; it amounts to a greater or less spiritualizing of our mental motives, our character and temperament, and a mastery, stifling or changed action of the vital and physcial life. This converted subjectivity can be made the base of some communion or unity of the soul in mind with the Divine and some partial reflection of the divine nature in the mentality of the human being. That is as far as man can go by his unaided or indirectly aided effort, because that is an effort of mind and mind cannot climb beyond itself permanently ; at most it arises to a spiritualized and idealized mentality. If it shoots up beyond that border, it loses hold of itself, loses hold of life, and arrives either at a trance of absorption or a passivity. A greater perfection can only be arrived at by a higher power entering in and taking up the whole action of the being. The second stage of this Yoga will therefore be a persisitent giving up of all the action of the nature into the hands of this greater Power, a substitution of its influence, possession and working for the personal effort, until the Divine to whom we aspire becomes the direct master of the Yoga and effects the entire spiritual and ideal conversion of the being.
This double character of our Yoga raises it beyond the mundane ideal of perfection, while at the same time it goes too beyond the loftier, intenser, but much narrower religious formula. The mundane ideal regards man always as a mental, vital and physical being and it aims at a human perfection well within these limits, a perfection of mind, life and body, an expansion and refinement of the intellect and knowledge, of the will and power, of ethical character, aim and conduct, of aesthetic sensibility and creativeness, of emotional balanced poise and enjoyment, of vital and phyical soundness, regulated action and just efficiency. It is a wide and full aim, but not yet sufficiently full and wide, because it ignores that other greater element of our being which the mind vaguely conceives as the spiritual element and leaves it either undeveloped or insufficiently satisfied as merely some high occasional or added derivatory experience, the result of the action of mind in its exceptional aspects or dependent upon mind for its presence and persisitence.
In the spirtual order of things, the higher we project our view and our aspiration, the greater the Truth that seeks to descend upon us, because it is already there within us and calls for its release from the covering that conceals it in manifest Nature.
Truth and perception become fused in the mind, leaving no difference between the two.
Man does not enter into battle to fight, but for victory. He does everything that he can to avoid the first and obtain the second.
Many statesmen have observed that the distribution of good and bad in the Army is balanced in a way unlike most walks of life—in favor of more men and women of moral stature. Why ? Probably because, in a service that so much involves issues of life and death, everyone is more sensitive to the person who might be looking out for only himself in times of danger.
The greatest responsiblity of a leader is to decide. Committees, meetings, discussion groups and so forth are the enemies of vigorous and prompt action. Their danger increases geometrically with their number and size. Committees are mostly burdened with doubts and are concerned about petty problems. In the face of uncertainty, they invariably adopt the worse course of action, which, under conditions of change, conflict, chaos and uncertainty is always the most timid, or, of you will, the most prudent. This leaves you open to ambush, since your most prudent course is also the most obvious to your competitor.
Understand and support politcal goals, to insure effective coordination of policy and strategy. Select military objectives that will lead logically to the achievement of political aims. Allocate resources and establish correct priorities. Conduct war in a way that sustains support of the home front. Maintain a proportional balance between the application of violence and the value of the political goals.
It is exceptional and difficult to find all the qualities of a great general combined in one man. What is most desirable and distinguishes the exceptional man is the balance of intelligence and ability with character or courage. If courage is predominant, the general will hazard far beyond his conceptions ; and on the contrary, he will not dare to accomplish his conceptions if his character or his courage are below his intelligence.
One might say his victories teach what may be accomplished by activity, boldness and skill ; his disasters, what might have been avoided by prudence.
After the organization of troops, military discipline is the first matter that presents itself. It is the soul of armies. If it is not established with wisdom and maintained with unshakable resolution you will have no soldiers.
The body has a wonderful capacity of adaptation and endurance. It is fit to do so many more things than one can usually imagine.
War, on the other hand, demands long, continuous endurance under hardships, without expectation of applause.
The important thing is to see the opportunity and to know how to use it.
Almost all great commanders attempted to surprise their enemies by and at the very outbreak of war.
The idea that something « cannot be done » is one of the main aids to successful surprise. It frequently happens that military experts consider particular operations as not feasible. Logistical difficulties, roughness of terrain, military traditions—all these elements are often over-emphasized. Experts tend to forget that most military problems are soluble provided one is willing to pay the price. Many problems are soluble by new methods. If one has a list of the enemy’s prejudices and knows what he considers as being “out of the question” or as “impossible”, and has in addition some new ideas, one is almost sure to catch the opponent by surprise.
Nothing is more disconcerting to the enemy—he has counted on a certain thing, has disposed himself accordingly, and, at the instant of attacking, it has changed. I repeat : nothing confuses him so greatly and leads him into more serious faults. If he does not change his dipositions he will be defeated, and if he changes them in the presence of the enemy he still will be defeated. Human spirit cannot meet it.
For part of the victory consists in throwing the enemy into disorder before you engage them.
Secrecy and speed. It is of extreme importance to hide one’s own plans from the enemy until he is unable to take effective counter-measures. This can be done either by concealment and camouflage or by deception. The enemy is easily deceived if he does not expect a particular decision.
Rapidity and surprise have a reciprocal effect. Rapidity is an essential condition for surprise.
“Strategy is a system of expedients and makeshifts.” Rommel “. . . never worked on what may be called a fixed plan.” We are thus coming back to Napoleon’s “On s’engage et puis on voit .”
Strategy is the art of making war upon the map, and comprehends the whole theater of operations. Grand tactics is the art of posting troops upon the battlefield according to the characteristic of the ground, of bringing them into action, and of fighting upon the ground, in contradistinction to planning upon a map. Logistics comprises the means and arangements which work out the plans of strategy and tactics. Strategy decides where to act ; logistics brings the troops to this point ; grand tactics decides the manner of execution and the employment of the troops.
To advance, to establish yourself solidly, to advance again, to establish yourself the same, and always to prepare to have within your reach of your army your resources and your requirements.
It is a false idea that discipline, subordination, and slavish obedience debase courage. It has always been noted that it is with those armies in which the severest discipline is enforced that the greatest deeds are performed.
Therefore, even when the likelihood of success is against us, we must not think of our undertaking as unreasonable or impossible ; for it is always reasonable, if we do not know of anything better to do, and if we make the best use of the few means at our disposal. We must never lack the calmness and firmness, which are so hard to preserve in time of war. Without them the most brilliant qualities of mind are wasted. We must therefore familiarize ourselves with the thought of an honorable defeat. We must always nourish the thought within ourselves, and get completely used to it.
“Pursue one great decisive aim with force and determination.”
“A strong will and a powerful mind together stand fast, as a landmark for the course of war—or a monument upon which all the streets of a city are oriented.”
The theory of warfare tries to discover how we may gain a preponderance of physical forces and material advantages at the decisive point. As this is not always possible, theory also teaches us to calculate moral factors : the likely mistakes of the enemy, the impression created by a daring action, . . . yes, even out own desperation. None of these things lies outside the realm of the theory and art of war, which is nothing else but the result of reasonable reflection on all the possible situations encountered during a war. We should think very frequently of the most dangerous of these situations and familiarize ourselves with it. Only thus shall we reach heroic decisons based on reason, which no critic can ever shake.
Warfare has three main objects : (a) to conquer and destroy the armed power of the enemy ; (b) to take possession of his material and other sources of strength, and (c) to gain public opinion.
The principle task of the general is mental, large projects and major arrangements.
He needs to generate intense energy, but always to keep a cool head. The greatest asset a capable executive can have is a controlled temperament. A controlled temperament bestows a sort of divine power, and it is only by means of divine power that you can motivate employees to peak performance in times of crisis.
“We prefer to find the critical rather than the creative intellect, the broad rather than the narrow mind, the cool rather than the hot head.”
“By the expression ‘strength of character’, or simply ‘character’, we mean a firm adherence to one’s convictions.”
The first step is self-determination. Every great leader goes through the process of self-determination. During this process, a leader determines what group he intends to lead and the rules and behaviors required by that group. The second step is decision. A leader must decide to accept the rules and behaviors required, regardless of what anyone else thinks and, more importantly, regardless of the consequences. The third step is action. The leader must act in a manner which is consistent with the required rules and behaviors. If a leader successfully completes these three steps, he can be confident in his position and enjoy the support of the group he intends to lead. But do not delude yourself. A real leader “walks the walk”, or he cannot really lead. An executive may fool his superiors for a time, but he will not fool his subordinates.
The next most important qualification of a general, after that of knowing how to form good plans, is unquestionably that of facilitating the execution of his orders by their clearness of style.
In order to be an altruist one does not need to transcend or annihilate his ego and his desire of good for the self. One needs only to be “enlightened” about one’s real self-interests, not to keep his or her ego from the excess of “unlightened selfishness” and to cooperate with other individuals for their mutual benefit. The ego-centered eros is thus utlitarian, hedonistic, and « rational » in its nature. It follows the following precepts : “live and let live”, “help others in order to be helped by others”, “do not harm others in order not to be harmed by others.” such an eros-love is discriminative : It is bestowed only upon those who deserve and reciprocate it. In contrast to eros agape-love is the egoless, self-giving love which « seeketh not its own » and freely spends itself. It possibly comes to mankind from above (from its cosmic source or God). Being inexhaustible in its richness, like the sun, agape shines upon and redeems the sinners no less than the virtuous. In this sense it is nondiscriminative, inscrutable, and incomprehensible to the ego-centered « rational mind ». The descriminative eros loves its object or person. These two forms of unselfish love—and their mixed forms—have perennially operated in the life-history of mankind. Eros and the mixed form of love seem to have been more frequent and more common than agape-love. On the other hand, almost all of the greatest apostles of love, from Buddha to Jesus to Gandhi, have preached and practiced agape rather than eros. Perhaps this explains to some extent the gigantic influence of such apostles upon millions of individuals and upon the course of human history.
Man does not, cannot change. What should increase with the power of material is the strength of organization, the unity of the fighting machine. Yet these are most neglected. A million men at maneuvers are useless, if a sane and reasoned organization does not assure their discipline, and thereby their reliability, that is, their courage in action. Four brave men who do not know each other will not dare to attack a lion. Four less brave, but knowing each other well, sure of their reliability and consequently of mutual aid, will attack resolutely. There is the science of organization of armies in a nutshell.
All sciences have principles and rules ; war has none.
If you want to win a battle, it is better to have an army of asses commanded by a lion than an army of lions commanded by an ass.
It is essential to know the character of the enemy and of their principal officers—whether they be rash or cautious, enterprising or timid, whether they fight on principle or from chance and whether the nations they have been engaged with were brave or cowardly.
Facts are incredibly different from all theories. Perhaps in this time of military reorganization it would not be out of place to make a study of man in battle and of battle itself. The art of war is subjected to many modifications by industrial and scientific progress. But one thing does not change, the heart of man. In the last analysis, success in battle is a matter of morale. In all matters which pertain to an army, organization, discipline and tactics, the human heart in the supreme moment of battle is the basic factor. It is rarely taken into account ; and often strange errors are the result.
The ability to improvise is one of the main pillars of successful leadership.
Still more important and typical of Clausewitz’ constant stress on the moral elements of warfare. His language, that of a man who also wrote romantic poetry, may sometimes sound strange to modern ears. But his advice : “Be audacious and cunning in your plans, firm and persevering in their execution, determined to find a glorious end”, will never lose its significance.
High morale, accurate and timely information, opportunity and surprise, effective execution.
Unstoppable purpose and tremendous energy.
A man is not born a leader. He must become one.
In every man’s life there is at least one big obstacle which he must surmount to achieve life’s desires.
The first principle of a general-in-chief is to calculate what he must do, to see if he has all the means to surmount the obstacles with which the enemy can oppose him and, when he has made his decision, to do everything to overcome them.
An effective leader is a person who brings people together in response to challenges, melds them into cohesive units, develops strategies for overcoming challenges, and executes the strategies successfully. An effective leader is neither abrasive nor abusive, overbearing or overwhelming. The chief characteristic of an effective leader is the ability to really get the job done without destroying the people on his, or anyone else’s team. (This follows Sun Tzu’s comment that the best generals win the war without fighting.) Organizations that systematically select, train, and nurture people with these leadership and command skills have the critical advantage.
In such a case, it is necessary to search and see for oneself or use men who are not frightened by difficulties. You will almost always find passes when you search for them.
Those who would be senior executives must have people around them with loyal hearts, keen eyes and long ears, sharp claws and curved fangs.
Choose your followers carefully ; you will become one with them !
Preparation of all the material necessary for setting the army in motion or, in other words, for operating the campaign : drawing up orders, instructions, and itineraries for the assemblage of the army and its subsequent launching upon its theatre of operations. Drawing up in proper manner the orders of the general-in-chief for different enterprises, as well as plans of attack in expected battles. Arranging with the chiefs of engineers and artillery the measures to be taken for the security of the posts which are to be used as depots, as well as those to be fortified in order to facilitate the operations of the army. Ordering and directing reconnaissances of every kind, and procuring in this way (and by using spies) as exact information as possible of the positions and movements of the enemy. Taking every precaution for the proper execution of movements ordered by the general : arranging the march of the different columns so that all may move in an orderly and connected manner ; ascertaining that the ease and safety of marches are assured ; regulating the manner and time of halts. Giving proper composition to advance guards, rear guards, flankers, and all detached bodies, and preparing both good instructions for their guidance and the means necessary to fulfillment of their mission. Prescribing forms and instructions for subordinate commanders or their staff officers, relative to the tactical handling of the troops both when encountering the enemy and in battle, according to the nature of the ground and the character of the enemy. Indicating to advance guards and other detachments well-chosen points of assembly in case of their attack by superior numbers, and informing them what support they may hope to receive in case of need. Arranging and supervising the march of trains of baggage, munitions, provisions, and ambulances, both with the columns and in their rear, in such manner that they will not interfere with the movements of the troops and will still be near at hand ; taking precautions for order and security both on the march and when trains are halted and parked. Providing for the successive arrival of convoys of supplies ; collecting all the means of transportation of the country and of the army, and regulating their use. Directing the establishment of camps and adopting regulations for their safety, good order and police. Establishing and organizing lines of operations and supplies, as well as lines of communications with these lines for detached bodies ; designating officers capable of organizing and commanding in rear of the army ; looking out for the safety of detachments and convoys, furnishing them good instructions ; and looking out also for preserving suitable means of communication of the army with its base. Organizing depots of convalescent, wounded, and sickly men, movable hospitals, and workshops for repairs, and providing for their safety. Keeping accurate record of all detachments, either on the flanks or in rear ; keeping an eye on their movements and providing for their return to the main column as soon as their service on detachment is no longer necessary ; giving them some center of action ; and forming strategic reserves. Organizing straggler lines to gather up isolated men or small detachments moving in either direction between the army and its base of operations. In case of sieges, ordering and supervising the employment of the troops in the trenches, and arranging with the chiefs of artillery and engineers as to the work to be done by those troops and their use in sorties and assaults. In retreats, taking precautionary measures for preserving order ; posting fresh troops to support and relieve the rear guard ; causing intelligent officers to examine and select positions where the rear guard may advantageously halt, engage the enemy, check his pursuit, and thus gain time ; making provision in advance for the movement of trains (so that nothing shall be left behind and that they shall proceed in the most perfect order), taking all proper precautions to insure safety. In cantonments, assigning positions to the different corps ; indicating to each principal division of the army a place of assembly in case of alarm ; taking measures to see that all orders, instructions, and regulations are implicitly obsesrved.
An examination of this long list—which might easily be made much longer by entering into greater detail—will lead every reader to remark that these are the duties rather of the general-in-chief than of staff officers. This truth I announced some time ago—and it is for the very purpose of permitting the general-in-chief to give his whole attention to the supreme direction of the operations that he ought to be provided with staff officers competent to relieve him of the details of execution. Their functions are therefore necessarily very intimately connected, and woe to an army where these authorities cease to act in concert ! This want of harmony is often seen, first because generals are men and have faults and secondly because in every army there are found individual interests and pretensions which produce rivalry of the chiefs of staff and hinder them in performing their duties.
Twelve essential conditions concur in making a perfect army : to have a good recruiting system, a good organization, a well-organzed system of national reserves, good combat, staff, and administrative instruction, a strict but not humiliating discipline, and a spirit of subordination and punctiality, based on conviction rather than on the formalities of service, and a well-established system of rewards, suitable to excite emulation ; the special arms of engineering and artillery to be well instructed ; to have an armament superior, if possible, to that of the enemy, as to both defensive and offensive arms ; a general staff capable of applying these elements and organized to advance theoretical and pratical education of its officers ; a good system for the commisariat, hospitals, and of general administration, and a good system of assignment to command and of directing the principal operations of war ; to excite and keep alive the military spirit of the people. None of these twelve conditions can be neglected without grave inconvenience.
To command, then, is to manage well when management is called for, to lead well when leadership is necessary, and to carry out orders and enforce regulations when “going by the book” is all that is required.
The art of leadership is an art based on simplicity ; and all success is rooted in performance. There is nothing vague about this ; everything is common sense. Successful leadership is the art of augmenting the chances which are in our favor by effective action.
Finally, the union of wise theory with great character will constitute the great general.
A leader must therefore stand fast, relying upon his understanding of what is probable and what is not, like the rock upon which the waves break. The part is not easy to play. One who is not an optimist by nature, or whose judgment has not been trained by experience in war, must turn resolutely away from the dictates of his timorous instincts and force himself to hope. In this way it is possible to strike a true middle course. Ordinary men, who yield to outside persuasion, generally remain continually undecided. They see every situation as different from what they thought it would be. In this frame of mind they yield further to outside persuasion, and become even more uncertain and vacillating. Even a strong, decisive person who has based his decisions on first hand information will often make wrong decisions. But he must not allow these errors to shake his inherent confidence in himself and tempt him to change his well-based decisions to accomodate some fleeting impression.
Without a doubt, virtue is its own best reward, and ambition is in itself a satisfaction, for it springs from the need which everyone feels to know his own nature.
It is the strength of any strong personality to seek to show its strength.
The first qualification of a general-in-chief is to possess a cool head, so that things may appear to him in their true proportions and as they really are. He should not suffer himself to be unduly affected by good or bad news. The impressions which are made upon his mind successively or simultaneously in the course of a day, should be so classified in his memory that each shall occupy its proper place ; for sound reasoning and judgment result from first examining each of these varied impressions by itself, and then comparing them all with one another. There are some men who, from their physical and moral constitution, deck everything in the colors of imagination. With whatever knowledge, talents, courage or other good qualities these may be endowed, nature has not fitted them for the command of armies and the direction of the great operations of war.
The first of all qualities is COURAGE. Without this the others are of little value, since they cannot be used. The second is INTELLIGENCE, which must be strong and fertile in expedients. The third is HEALTH. He should possess a talent for sudden and appropriate improvisation. He should be able to penetrate the minds of other men, while remaining impenetrable himself. He should be endowed with the capacity of being prepared for everything, with activity accompanied by judgment, with skill to make a proper decision on all occasions, and with exactness of discernment. He should punish without mercy, especially those who are dearest to him, but never from anger.
This inner Guide is often veiled at first by the very intensity of our personal effort and by the ego’s preoccupation with itself and its aims. As we gain in clarity and the turmoil of egoistic effort gives place to a calmer self-knowledge, we recognize the source of the growing light within us. We recognize it retrospectively as we realize how all our obscure and conflicting movements have been determined towards an end that we only now begin to perceive, how even before our entrance into the path of the Yoga the evolution of our life has been designedly led towards its turning point. For now we begin to understand the sense of our struggles and efforts, successes and failures. At last we are able to seize the meaning of our ordeals and sufferings and can appreciate the help that was given us by all that hurt and resisted and the utility of our very falls and stumblings. We recognize this divine leading afterwards, not retrospectively but immediately, in the molding of our thoughts by a transcendent Seer, of our will and actions by an all-embracing Power, of our emotional life by an all-attracting and all-assimilating Bliss and Love. We recognize it too in a more personal relation that from the first touched us or at the last seizes us ; we feel the eternal presence of a supreme Master, Friend, Lover, Teacher. We recognize it in the essence of our being as that develops into likeness and oneness with a greater and wider existence ; for we perceive that this miraculous development is not the result of our own efforts ; an eternal Perfection is molding us into its own image. One who is the Lord or Ishwara of the Yogic philosophies, the Guide in the conscious being (caitya guru or antaryamin), the Absolute of the thinker, the Unknowable of the Agnostic, the universal Force of the materialist, the supreme Soul and the supreme Shakti, the One who is differently named and imaged by the religions, is the master of our Yoga. To see, know, become and fulfill this One in our inner selves and in all our outer nature, was always the secret goal and becomes now the conscious purpose of our embodied existence.
To be conscious of him in all parts of our being and equally in all that the dividing mind sees as outside our being, is the consummation of the individual consciousness. To be possessed by him and possess him in ourselves and in all things is the term of all empire and mastery. To enjoy him in all experience of passivity and activity, of peace and of power, of unity and of difference is the happiness which the jiva, the individual soul manifested in the world, is obscurely seeking. This is the entire definition of the aim of integral Yoga ; it is the rendering in personal experience of the truth which universal Nature has hidden in herself and which she travails to discover. It is the conversion of the human soul into the divine soul and of natural life into divine living.
The surest way towards this integral fulfilment is to find the Master of the secret who dwells within us, open ourselves constantly to the divine Power which is also the divine Wisdom and Love and trust to it to effect the conversion. But it is difficult for the egoistic consciousness to do this at all at the beginning. And, if done at all, it is still difficult to do it perfectly and in every strand of our nature. It is difficult at first because our egoistic habits of thought, of sensation, of feeling block up the avenues by which we can arrive at the perception that is needed. It is difficult afterwards because the faith, the surrender, the courage requisite in this path are not easy to the ego-clouded soul. The divine working is not the working which the egoistic mind desires or approves ; for it uses error in order to arrive at truth, suffering in order to arrive at bliss, imperfection in order to arrive at perfection. The ego cannot see where it is being led ; it revolts against this leading, loses confidence, loses courage. These failings would not matter ; for the divine Guide within is not offended by our revolt, not discouraged by our want of faith or repelled by our weakness ; he has the entire love of the mother and the entire patience of the teacher. But by withdrawing our assent from the guidance we lose the consciousness, though not all the actuality—not, in any case, the eventuality—of its benefit. And we withdraw our assent because we fail to distinguish our higher self from the lower through which he is preparing his self-revelation.
For the living out of spiritual existence until we cease to be mind and become spirit, until, liberated from the imperfections of our present nature, we are able to live entirely in our true and divine being is what in the end we mean by Yoga. This upward transference of our centre of being and the consequent transformation of our whole existence and consciousness, with the resultant change in the whole spirit and motive of our action, the action often remaining precisely the same in all its outward appearances, makes the gist of the Gita’s Karma-voyage. Change your being, be reborn into the spirit and by that new birth proceed with the action to which the Spirit within has appointed you, may be said to be the heart of the message. Or again, put otherwise, with a deeper and more spiritual import—make the work you have to do here your means of inner spiritual rebirth, the divine birth, and having become divine, do still divine works as an instrument of the Divine for the leading of the peoples.
To command, therefore, is to think and decide, to feel and moralize, to act and wield power.
People who are responsible for command tasks must possess vision and drive, imagination and persistence, in order to succeed.
Create priorities, identify objectives, allocate resources, dictate timing, interpret missions, and undertake all the tasks associated with military command.
The elements of effective action are decision, determination, energy, simplicity, balance and chance.
Everything is said about our society except what it is, and the nature of its two basic principles—the commodity and the spectacle. The fetichism of the facts masks the essential category, and the details consign the totality to oblivion.
Throughout history there has been only one that ruling interests have ever wanted—and that is everything : all the choice lands, forests, game, herds, harvests, mineral deposits, and precious metals of the earth ; all the wealth, riches and profitable returns ; all the productive facilities, gainful inventiveness, and technologies ; all the control positions of the state and other major institutions ; all public supports and subsidies, privileges and immunities ; all the protection of the law with none of its constraints ; all the services, comforts, luxuries, and advantages of civil society with onone of the taxes and costs. Every ruling class has wanted only this : all the rewards and none of the burdens. The operational code is : we have a lot ; we can get more ; we want it all.
Capitalism has no loyalty to anything but itself, to the accumulation of wealth.
Since real politics is motivated by individual self-interest, history is viewed most accurately as a struggle for power and wealth. We do our best to obscure this self-evident truth by popularizing the theory that history is made by the impersonal struggles between ideas, political systems, ideologies, races, and classes. Through systematic infiltration of all major intellectual, political, and ideological organizations, using the lure of financial support and instant publicity, we have been able to set the limits of public debate within the ideological requirements of our money power.
When Colonel Mason of Virginia proposed a Bill of Rights at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, it was voted down almost unanimously (Massachusetts abstained). Popular protests, land seizures by the poor, food riots, and other disturbances made the men of property who gathered at Philadelphia unconfortably aware of the need for an effective central authority that could be sufficiently protective of the propertied classes. But such popular ferment also set a limit on what the framers dared to do. Belatedly and reluctantly they agreed during the ratification struggle to include a Bill of Rights, a concession made under threat of democratic agitation and in the hope that the amendments would ensure ratification of the new Constitution. So the Bill of Rights was not a gift from that illustrious gaggle of rich merchants, land and currency speculators, and slaveholders known as our « Founding Fathers ». It was a product of class struggle. The same was true of the universal franchise. It took mass agitation from the 1820’s to the 1840’s by workers and poor farmers to abolish property qualifications and win universal white male suffrage. Almost a century of agitation and struggle was necessary to win the franchise for women. And bloody civil war and subsequen generations of struggle were needed to win basic political rights for African Americans, a struggle still far from complete.
The most difficult problem for the money lord is determining the level of social and economic freedom he dares allow for the sake of his international power.
As the haves would have it, people must lower their expectations, work harder, and be satisfied with less. The more they get the more they will expect and be able to demand, until we will end up with a social democracy—or worse. Better to keep them down and hungry with their noses to the grindstone. For the ruling interests, it is time to return to nineteenth-century standards, the kind that currently obtain throughout the Third World—specifically, an unorganized working populace that toils for a bare subsistence ; a mass of unemployed, desperate poor who help to depress wages and serve as a target for the misplaced resentment of those just above them ; a small shrinking middle class that hangs on by its bleeding fingers ; and a tiny, obscenely rich owning class that has it all. The haves are pulling out all the stops. For them, it’s time to cutback drastically on such luxuries as education, medical care, libraries, mass transportation, and other publicly funded human services, so that people will have the opportunity to learn how to take care of themselves. Time to do away with unions, business regulations, minimum-wage laws, occupational safety, consumer safety, environmental protections, and taxes on investment income. All these things cut into profits. Every dollar that goes into the public sector is one less for the private sector. And the haves want it all.
The GOP socio-economic agenda is not much different from the kind pushed to by Mussolini and Hitler ; break the unions, depress wages, impose a rightist ideological monopoly over the media, abolish taxes for the rich, eliminate government regulations designed for worker and consumer safety and environmental protection, plunder public lands, privatize public enterprises, wipe out most human services, and liberal-bait and race-bait all those opposed to such measures.
Instead we attempt to prolong the conflicts by supporting both sides as required. War, of course, is the ultimate diversionary conflict and the health of our system. War provides the perfect cover of emergency and crisis behind which we consolidate our power.
The powers that be prefer demoralized, divided, disorganized, and drug-ridden populations to people who are politicized and who mobilize for collective action and radical change. Members of various African American and Latino groups, such as the Young Lords, the Black Panthers, Brown Berets, Black Men Against Crack, and the Cripps and Bloods (after these gangs became politicized), can testify that when they were involved in crime they had less trouble from the police than when they became politically mobilized against drugs, police brutality, and expolitative social relations within the inner-city communities. In attacks conducted jointly by local authorities and federal agents, Black Panther offices across the country were raided and destroyed, their funds stolen, and their occupants arrested or shot. At least thirty-four Panthers perished in the repression of the 1970’s. Hundreds of others were incarcerated, many on trumped-up charges. Some, like Geronimo Pratt, are still in prison over twenty years later.
Fortunately for man, this deadly trend is paralleled and increasingly opposed, first of all, by the trend of reestablishment adnd reaffirmation of the eternal, universal, and unconditionally binding basic moral values and norms. These values and norms are well formulated in the Sermon on the Mount as well as in the basic moral precepts of all great religions, ethical systems, and by all the great apostles of unselfish creative love. For the last few decades a notably increased knowledge of moral and legal phenomena has clearly shown the superficiality, inadequacy, errors, and poisonous effects of extremely relativistic, atomistic, utilitarian, and hedonistic sensate conceptions of these phenemona and values. Among other things this increased knowledge clearly established the fact that along with changing and local mores, folkways, and legal norms are the basic moral values and norms of conduct which are universal, perennial, and obligatory for all societies and persons desiring a sound and good life. As a matter of fact, these eternal values and norms were found to be operating in all such societies of the past and present. On the other hand, they were found to be lacking and inoperative in practically all groups that are in the state of utter demoralization, disintegration, and decay. Besides the pregnant trend of reaffirmation of the perennial and universal moral values and precepts, the emerging integral order of ethics and law has manifested itself in the growth of moral heroism, sublime altruism, and ennobled moral conduct in an increasing number of individuals and groups ; in the form of many organized movements for the abolition of war, bloody strife, misery, sickness, poverty, exploitation, and injustice ; and in the form of social movements promoting the vital, mental, and moral improvement of man and his environment.
Without a minimum of love, life tends to become a burden not worth living for the persons imprisoned within their egoistic shells.
For the most vital issue of the age is whether the future progress of humanity is to be governed by the modern economic and materialistic mind of the West or by a nobler pragmatism guided, uplifted and enlightened by spiritual culture and knowledge.
To see all things in the self and the self in all things—to be aware of one being everywhere, aware directly of the different planes, their forces, their beings—that is universalisation.
Those who pretend to be our leaders are running the cruelest scam in history. There will be hope for the world when people begin to see that the conditions that they face are not the outgrowth of happenstance or « hard times » but the result of concerted and intentional rapacity, the creation of poverty by wealth, the creation of powerlessness by the powerful.
All of humanity can be categorized into three groups. Group A consist of that tiny portion of people who usually do not work because they do not have to. The people in group A receive the bulk of their money from dividends on stock investements ; interest payments on bonds and securities ; the sale of appreciated holdings in commodity futures, real estate, and other ventures ; rents on income property ; payments on privately financed loans or mortgage notes that they hold as creditors ; government business subsidies and other giveaways ; royalty from oil and other mineral deposits ; and various other investments. Some prominenent tycoons who preside over vast financial empires may work, but they do so out of personal choice, not economic necessity. And the workday they put in does not explain the source of their immense wealth nor the pace at which it accumulates. The far greater portion of their fortune comes from the ownership of assets that directly or indirectly engage the labors of others. Most of humanity, group B, consists of those who live principally off wages, salaries, bonuses, fees, commissions, and pensions. To be sure, group B includes a wide income spread, from affluent professionals who have to work because they cannot live exclusively off their investment earnings, to working poor who have no assets and endure real deprivations. Generally what the people in groups A and B have in common is that they both live principally off the labor of the people in group B. Group C comprises the most desperate millions throughout the world who have been forced off the labor market and who live in absolute destitution. Their political function is to be castigated and scapegoated as social parasites. Their economic function is to provide a surplus of needy workers at home and abroad who help glut the labor market and depress wages. They make up what Marx called, « the reserve army of labor ».
Those of us designated as “extreme leftists” actually want rather moderate and civil things : a clean enbironment, a fair tax structure, use of social production for social needs, expansion of public sector production, serious cuts in a bloated military budget, affordable housing, decently paying jobs, equal justice for all, and the like. There is nothing morally extreme about such things. They are “extreme” only in the sense of being extremely at odds with the dominant interests of the status quo. In the face of such gross injustice and class privilege, considerations of social justice and betterment take on the appearance of “extreme” measures.
Progress toward an integral perfection of the four planes of human existence : physical, vital, mental, and psychic-spiritual. These four areas correspond to the four goals of beauty, power, knowledge and love.
Seeing the sins of men, one sometimes wonders whether one should react to them by force or by humble love. Alway decide to fight them by humble love. If it is carried through, the whole world can be conquered. Humble love is the most effective force, the most terrific, the most powerful, unequaled by any other force in the world.
Delight in bringing about justice.
Delight in stopping cruelty and exploitation.
Fighting lies and untruths.
They love virtue to be rewarded.
They seem to like happy endings, good completions.
They hate sin and evil to be rewarded, and they hate people to get away with it.
They are good punishers of evil.
They try to set things right, to clean up bad situations.
They enjoy doing good.
They like to reward and praise promise, talent, virtue, etc.
They avoid publicity, fame, glory, honors, popularity, celebrity, or at least do not seek it. It seems to be not awfully important one or another.
They do not need to be loved by everyone.
They generally pick out their causes, which are apt to be few in number, rather than responding to advertising or to campaigns or to other people’s exhortations.
They tend to enjoy peace, calm, quiet, pleasantness, etc. and they tend not to like turmoil, fighting, war, etc. (they are not general-fighters on every front), and they can enjoy themselves in the middle of a “war.”
They also seem practical and shrewd and realistic about it, more often than impractical. They like to be effective and dislike being ineffectual.
Their fighting is not an excuse for hostility, paranoia, grandiosity, authority, rebellion, etc. but is for the sake of setting things right. It is problem-centered.
They manage somehow to simultaneously to love the world as it is and try to improve it.
In all cases there was some hope that people and nature and society could be improved.
In all cases it was if they could see both good and evil realistically.
They respond to the challenge in a job.
A chance to improve the situation or the operation is a big reward. They enjoy improving things.
Observations generally indicate great pleasure in their children and in helping them grow into good adults.
They do not need or seek for or even enjoy very much flattery, applause, popularity, status, prestige, money, honors, etc.
Expressions of gratitude, or at least of awareness of their good fortune, are common.
They have a sense of noblesse oblige. It is the duty of the superior, of the one who sees and knows, to be patient and tolerant, as with children.
They tend to be attracted by mystery, unsolved problems, by the unknown and the challenging, rather than to be frightened by them.
They enjoy bringing about law and order in the chaotic situation, or in the messy and confused situation, or in the dirty and unclean situation.
They hate (and fight) corruption, cruelty, malice, dishonesty, pompousness, phoniness, and faking.
They try to free themselves from illusions, to look at the facts courageously, to take away the blindfold.
They feel it is a pity for talent to be wasted.
They do not do mean things, and they respond with anger when other people do mean things.
They tend to feel that every person should have an opportunity to develop to his highest potential, to have a fair chance, to have equal opportunity.
They like doing things well, “doing a good job”, “to do well what needs doing.” Many such phrases add up to “bringing about good workmanship.”
One advantage of being boss is the right to give away the corporation’s money, to choose which good causes to help. They enjoy giving their own money to causes they consider important, good, worthwhile, etc. Pleasure in philanthropy.
They enjoy watching and helping the self-actualization of others, especially of the young.
They enjoy watching happiness and helping to bring it about.
They get pleasure from knowing admirable people (courageous, honest, effective, “straight”, “big”, creative, saintly, etc.) “My work brings me incontact with many fine people.”
They enjoy taking on responsibilities (that they can handle well), and certainly don’t fear or evade their responsiblities. They respond to responsibility.
They uniformly consider their work to be worthwhile, important, even essential.
They enjoy greater efficiency, making an operation more neat, compact, simpler, faster, less expensive, turning out a better product, doing with less parts, a smaller number of operations, less clumsinesss, less effort, more foolproof, safer, more « elegant », less laborious.
Now and for some time in the future one of the main differences between the emerging Western and Eastern integral orders is likely to be the following : The establishment of the Western integral order out of the hitherto dominant sensate order is possible only through : (a) de-emphasis of material, physical realities and values occupying an unduly pre-eminent position in the sensate Weltanschauung and civilization and, (b) through supplementation of these reality-values by rational and super-sensory ones, which are underdeveloped and undervalued in sensate cultures. The integral order as a unified system of the sensory, the rational, and the supersensory-superrational realities and values requires this deemphasis and supplementation. Without this internal reconstruction no integral order can be built from the remaining debris of the previously dominant but now moribund sensate order.
This type of culture can be called integral. All its compartments and its social life articulate this principle. It pays no attention to the empirical as well as the superempirical aspects of the true reality-value. Science as well as philosophy and theology begin to blossom in it, and they harmoniously cooperate with one another. The subjects of its fine arts are partly supersensory and partly empirical, but only in the noblest and most sublime aspects of sensory reality. Its heroes are partly gods, partly heroic human beings at their best. It is an art intentionally blind to everything vulgar, debasing, and ugly in the empirical world of the senses. It ennobles the ignoble, beautifies the ugly, rejuvenates the old, and immortalizes the mortal. Its style is partly symbolic and allegorical, partly realistic and naturalistic. Its emotional tone is serene, calm, and imperturbable.
The best masters are those who know man best, the man of today and the man of history.
Despite all pompous declaration of the sacredness of human life and the dignity of individuals, human beings have been exterminated more pitilessly in our time than in any previous time, in totalitarian as well as democratic countries.
The market has one central principle—the loss of self in the aimless and unconscious creation of a world beyond the control of its creators.
A systemic increase of interindividual criminality—juvenile and adult—in almost all Western countries.
An increase of mental disease, drug addiction, suicide, and anomie by the victims of moral anarchy.
An increase of moral cynicism, corruption, gross sensualism of the type “Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we die” in governmental and private circles of the population.
Increasing violations of contractual obligations by private individuals, by governments, by labor and mangement, and by all sorts of groups and unions. The old binding pacta sunt servanda is largely forgotten, and a legion of individuals and groups are unhesitatingly violating their contratual duties as soon as a profitable occasion for such violations arises. Among other violators, all the existing governments, without exception, have proved themselves « chronic double-crossers ».
This sort of violation has also deeply penetrated the realm of marriage and family relationships, as evidenced by a great and systematic increase of divorces, separations, and desertions, and by an increasing of premarital and extra-marital sex liasons. Even omitting a long series of other proof of gigantic demoralization, this succession of ugly facts makes it hardly questionable. We indeed live in an age of tremendous negative moral polarization rarely if ever rivaled in the past history of mankind.
The present, very critical situation of mankind and the deep chasm between noble professions of faith and ignoble practices imperatively demand from all religions the greatest possible concentration on the moral transformation of the human race in the direction of creative and unselfish love, not only preached but practiced. Otherwise, it is doubtful that purely verbalistic and ritualistic religions can become the spiritual and moral leaders in overcoming the gigantic dangers of the present and in building the future order in the human universe. We must not forget that practically all the great religions emerged in catastrophic circumstances and, at their initial period, were first of all and most of all moral social movements inspired by sympathy, compassion, and the Gospel of Love. They set out to achieve the moral regeneration of a demoralized society. Only later on did such movements become overgrown by complex theological dogmas and impressive rituals. This is equally true of the emergence of Taoism, Confucianism, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, the Mosaic and Prophetic Judaisms, Christianity, and other ethico-religious movements. If at their heroic phase these ethico-religious movements greatly helped to overcome the catastrophes in the history of ancient Egypt, Babylonia, China, India, Persia, Israel, Greece, Rome, and of the Western countries, the existing religions together can now perform this task for all mankind. Since the main moral commandments of all great religions are essentially similar, they can wholeheartedly cooperate in this task of the atruistic transformation of overt behavior, social institutions, and culture of their peoples. It offers them real common ground for such cooperation, allowing each of the religions to maintain the individuality of its own theological dogmas and rituals. In discharging this task however, the existing religions must replace their hitherto predominant tribal viewpoint with a universal one, in the sense of requiring the practical application of moral precepts not only to the members of one’s religion but to all human beings regardless of their religion, race, nationality, social position, sex, age, and other differences. Whether we want it or not, the tribal stage of human history in all its forms is essentially over. The human race has already become, to a large extent, one interdependent whole. Any important change in any important social group—be it a national, state, religious, occupational, racial, or ethnic group, a social class, or any other collectivity—quite tangibly affects the life and well-being of the rest of mankind. The replacement of selfish tribal policies by universal ones is going on even in the constructive policies of states, social classes, and other powerful groups. For religious organizations such a replacement not only is more urgently required but is more easily attainable because the moral commandments of almost all the world religions have been addressed to all human beings, have been universal, not tribal, in their intent. In practice, however, they have often been applied only to the members of a given religion and not to all human beings. With the passing of the tribal stage of human history, the intended universality of their moral imperatives is needed now to be applied in practice. The time of selfishly tribal religions, so far as their moral commandments are concerned, is about over. The replacement of religious tribalism by universalism implies among other things : the abandonment of monopolistic claims of many religions to be the only true religion and to possess indubitable superiority over all other religions, and the abandonment of the policies of religious imperialism with its intolerance, disrespect and persecution of other religions. This last has fairly frequently been practiced in the past by such « imperialistic » religions as Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism (to a lesser degree by the religions of Taoism, Confucianism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism.) In its infinite plenitude the True and Supreme Reality of God still remains the mysterium tremendum et fascinosum, the coincidentia oppositorum, « the Divine Nothing » into which fade all things and differentiations. In His fullness God can hardly be adequately comprehended by any finite human mind or by any finite human beliefs. For this reason no human religion can claim to have a monopoly on an adequate comprehension of God, as God’s exclusive confidant and agent. On the other hand, the numberless ripples of this Infinite Ocean allow different groups of believers to select those that for various reasons most appeal to them. So understand, the differences in the chosen « ripples », usually reflected in the dogmas and rituals of different religions, in no way necessitate that different denominations be antagonistic to each other or view their own beliefs as the only true ones and those of other religions as totally false. Cherishing thier own beliefs, the believers of each religion can equally respect the beliefs of others as supplementary to their own, revealing additional aspects of the mysterium tremendum et fascinosum. Viewed so, religious differences cannot only be tolerated but genuinely welcomed and esteemed. In their totality they convey to us a fuller knowledge of the Supreme Reality than that given by a single religion. So considered, they give a solid ground for a wholehearted cooperation of all religions in the great task of « the feeling of the Presence » (in Brother Lawrence’s terms), of better knowledge of the « Divine Nothing », and in realization of God’s ways in the human world. Fortunately for us, this sort of cooperation has already started and is rapidly developing. It is represented by such movements and organizations as the World Council of Churches, The Ecumenical Conference called by the Pope, the International Congress of Religions, the Conference of Christians and Jews, the unified activities of Catholics, Protestants, and Jews, by mergers of two or more demonations into one unified religious body, and by similiar phenomena. It is very probable that in the near future a truly ecumenical cooperation of all religions, Christian and non-Christian, will grow rapidly and will realize this important task more fully. Along with this cooperation of all religious forces in the spiritual and moral transformation of mankind, all religions must also establish a harmonious relationship and wholehearted cooperation with science.
Wherever in human life a conflict arises, dealing with anything better than blind avarice or ferocity on both sides, wherever there is even the feeblest spark of what men call duty, there is always found that mysterious and exalted feeling called honor, with whose bitter sweetness nothing else that is human is comparable, since by comparison with it life itself has but a feather’s weight of value. The sentiment of personal honor, of self-respect, which raises man above the conditions of ordinary life, is nothing else than a concentration of nobility in the individual.
The best way to overcome friction is to inculcate in every man a grim determination to win at any cost.
We shall be able to gain victory only if we surpass him in energy and boldness.
Real bravery, inspired by devotion to duty, does not know panic and is always the same.
“It means having enough challenges to give life meaning.”
We must not forget that practically all the great religions emerged in catastrophic circumstances and, during their initial period, were first of all and most of all moral social movements inspired by sympathy, compassion, and the Gospel of Love. They set out to achieve the moral regeneration of a demoralized society. Only later on did such movements become burdened by complex theological dogmas and impressive rituals.
Finally, all cultural systems of science, philosophy, religion, ethics, law, fine arts, humanistic and social disciplines, as well as applied technology in all fields of human activity, must be permeated by the grace of love and freed from the poison of hate to a much greater degree than they have been up to the present time.
Beethoven states : “You will ask me where I get my ideas. I am not able to answer that question positively . . . What we conquer for ourselves through art is from God, divine inspiration . . . Every genuine creation of art is independent, mightier than the artist himself, and through its manifestation, returns to the Divine. With man it has only this in common : that it bears testimony to the mediation of the Divine in him.” Beethoven clearly stresses the insufficiency of the rational mind for creativity. “Kings and Princes may be able to create professors and privy counselors . . . but they cannot create great men . . . The new and orginal is born of itself without one’s thinking of it.” Each creator in the fields of science, philosophy, religion, technology, or the fine arts is also a gigantic power station generating the energies of truth and beauty. So far as these energies are transformable into the energy of love (and vice versa), an increase in the number of these heroes of truth and beauty leads indirectly to an increase in the production of love (and vice versa). Therefore all measures that facilitate an increase of constructive creativity in the fields of truth and beauty also serve the purpose of increasing creativity in the field of goodness.
The decay of the overripe sensate fine arts manifests itself in many ways. First, in decreasing creativity. The creative giants are all in the past, and today we seem to live in a world of artistic midgets. In music, Palestrina, Monteverdi, Bach, Mozart, Hayden, Handel, Purcell, Lully, Rameau, Couperin, Beethoven, and the like, all lived and created before or at the beginning of the nineteenth century. That century also had a galaxy of eminent creators in music, like Shubert, Schumann, Chopin, Berlioz, Wagner, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Mussorgski and others ; but even they were no longer of the stature of Bach, Mozart or Beethoven. The twentieth century has hardly produced any master equal to the masters of the nineteenth century. Similarly, in literature, the creative giants like Shakespeare, Goethe, Balzac, Hugo, Dickens, Tolstoi, Dostoevski, Melville, Twain, Whitman, and the like belong to the pre-nineteenth and the nineteenth centuries ; the greatest literary masters of the twentieth century, exemplified by the winners of the Nobel Prize, are but midgets in comparison with these earlier masters. The situation is similar in painting and sculpture, drama and other fine arts. “When there is no real fish, a crawfish is a fish”, says a Russian proverb. We seem to have plenty big and small crawfish and hardly any real big fish. Degradation of the fine arts and of beauty to the level of a mere means of sensual enjoyment—on a par with “wine, women and song”, a bottle of beer or a packet of popcorn or even to the level of a mere appendage of commercial advertising—is another symptom and consequence of the decadence of sensate art. In ideational and integral art, and at the creative stage of sensate art, the value of beauty and art was regarded as a supreme end-value, indissolubly bound up with the other supreme values : God, truth, goodness, and the majesty of absolute beauty itself.
Since the sensate sociocultural order, dominant in the Western world for the last five centuries, is at the present time in a state of decay, it is bound to be replaced by a new, probably integral, sociological order—if the Western peoples are destined to continue their creative historical life. At the present time the first “spring blades” of this integral order are already emerging and slowly growing. The epochal struggle between the dying sensate and the emerging integral orders is paramount ; it is the deepest and the greatest struggle of our time and of future decades. All the other conflicts—capitalism vs. communism, democracy vs. Totalitarianism, religion vs. atheism or agnosticism, materialism vs. idealism, “freedom” vs. “compulsory regimentation” and other contemporary battle fronts—are but partial manifestations of this all-pervading, total and global struggle between the disintegrating sensate and the coming integral orders. This gigantic struggle is going on now in all aspects of social life and in all areas of Western culture—in science, philosophy, religion, ethics, law, fine arts, politics, and economics. It goes on within our souls, our minds, our bodies and our overt behavior.
“Art for art’s sake.” Since it must entertain, it widely uses caricature, satire, comedy, farce, debunking, ridicule, and similar means. At its overripe stage, it becomes eclectic and presents in its exhibits and best-sellers an atrocious concoction of trivia. Depending upon a different combination of emotional, volitional, and intellectual elements, altruistic love as a phychological experience has different “tonal qualities” or “colors.” They are marked by such terms as empathy, sympathy, kindness, friendship, devotion, reverence, benevolence, admiration, respect, and others. All these forms are opposite to the forms of inimical psychological experience marked by such terms as hate, enmity, dislike,antipathy, envy and the like.
A further characteristic of sensate art in its decadence is its morbid concentration on pathological persons and events. From the realm of the Kingdom of God in ideational medieval art, Western art has descended, through the realm of the heroic, semidivine human society, to the world of normal human beings and finally, in our time, to the region of the social sewers with its abnormal and subhuman population consisting mainly of murderers, hypocrites, lunatics, sex maniacs and perverts, prostitutes, mistresses, cynical politicians, business Moguls, crazy teenagers, hucksters of arts and sciences, racketeers of religion, and other demoralized and desocialized human beasts. These animals make up the bulk of the personages and “heroes” of today’s fine arts. They are centered mainly around criminal’s hideouts, sex, insanity, and violence.
For this reason genuine truth is always good and beautful, genuine beauty is invariably true and good, and genuine love is always true and beautiful. Potentially each of them contains the other two. In this trinity love is conceived as the unifying, integrating, and harmonizing cosmic power that counteracts the disintegrating forces of chaos, unites what is separated by enmity, builds what is destroyed by discord, creates and maintains the grand order in the whole universe. The familiar formula of practically all great religions “God is Love” and “Love is God”, is one variation of this cosmic conception of unselfish love.
As to the search for the supreme reality and values which are the central problems of all religions, despite a lack of statistical data of the number of persons engaged in it, it is reasonably certain that this sort of search is going on now in millions of souls of our fellowmen.
Truth, goodness, and beauty will again be united into the highest trinity of values—all unfolding more fully the mysteries of the Supreme Reality and all faithfully serving mankind in its creative mission on this planet and beyond it. Our time is propitious for this magnificent possibility.
We can triumph over such obstacles only with very great exertion, and to accomplish this the leader must show a severity bordering on cruelty. Only when he knows that everything possible is always being done, can he be sure that these small difficulties will not have a great influence on his operations. Only then can he be sure that he will not fall too far short of the aim which he could have reached.
He, therefore, who desires peace, should prepare for war. He who aspires to victory, should spare no pains to form his soldiers. And he who hopes for success, should fight on principle, not chance.
I am strong, apt, vigorous, trained, full of calmness, presence of mind ; I have good offensive and defensive weapons and trustworthy companions of long standing.
He was an ambitious man, burning with curiosity, and he had ability—a winning combination in any line of endeavor.
The essential point is, and always must be, that a man shall give himself up wholly to a great cause ; that he shall not seek to satisfy his vanity and achieve personal advantage. Regarded in this light, the effort to express one’s own personality is not an object in itself ; it is merely a means to prepare us for the one thing that measures the value of a man in war—that is, what he does in action.
“War is a trade for the ignorant and a science for the expert.”
Devotion to a great cause can keep ambition more or less impersonal. “Whatever one seeks with all his strength, that he shall have ; for the desire for it is an expression of one’s very nature .”
The highest inventive genius must be sought not so much amongst those who invent new weapons as among those who devise new fighting organizations.
The banality of everyday life is not incidental, but the central mechanism and product of modern capitalism.
In Freudian and similar recent conjectures the distortion and degradation of human nature has sunk to its lowest level. Fortunately, increased knowledge of human personality has led to an essential repudiation of these decadent sensate theories as phantasmagoric scientifically, ugly aesthetically, and demoralizing ethically, and to an emergence and growth of new, more scientific and adequate conceptions in this field. In these new theories man is conceived of as a marvelous integral being. He appears to be not only an animal organism but also a rational thinker and doer : in addition, he proves to be a super-sensory and superrational being, an active and important participant in the supreme creative forces of the cosmos. He is not only an unconscious and conscious creature, but especially a supraconscious master-creator capable of controlling and transcending his unconscious and conscious energies in the moments of his “divine inspiration”, in the periods of his highest and most intense creativity. As mentioned previously, man’s greatest discoveries and creative achievements have been largely due to man as the supraconscious master-operator, assisted by man as a rational thinker and by man as an empirical observer and experimenter.
The energy of love shows its revitalizing qualities in many other forms. Other conditions being equal, of two persons with identical biological organisms, the kind and friendly person tends to live longer and to have better health than the unkind and especially the hate-possessed individual. Love in its various forms proves to be one of the most important factors of longevity and good health ; being loved by others and loving others seems to be as important as any other single factor of vitality.
The tantric method starts from the bottom and grades the ladder of ascent upwards to the summit ; therefore its initial stress is upon the action of the awakened Shakti in the nervous system of the body and its centers ; the opening of the six lotuses is the opening of the ranges of the power of Spirit. Our synthesis takes man as a spirit in mind much more than a spirit in body and assumes in him the capacity to begin on that level, to spiritualize his being by the power of the soul in mind opening itself directly to a higher spiritual force and being and to perfect by that higher force so possessed and brought into action the whole of his nature. For that reason our initial stress has fallen upon the utilisation of the powers of the soul in mind and the turning of the triple key of knowledge, works and love in the locks of the spirit.
Finally, love furnishes considerable driving force to the total power of each of the highesr values of human life ; to the power of truth and knowledge, of beauty and freedom, of goodness and happiness. Thus love of truth makes the search for truth more forceful, enjoyable and indefatigable tha the pursuit of truth either coercively imposed or contractually stipulated. Most of the valid truths of humanity have been discovered through the love of truth rather than through coercion or obligation. The love of truth not only stimulates scientific discoveries, inventions, philosophical and religious verities, but also directly contributes to our knowledge and learning. Through empathy, communion, and participation in the experience of all who are loved, love enormously enriches our poor individual experience. This empathetic, sympathetic, loving way of learning is possibly one of the surest and most efficient methods of cognition and is the most fruitful way to truth and knowledge.
Perhaps the latest realm to be explored is the mysterious realm of altruistic love. Though now in its infancy, its scientific study is likely to become a most important area for future research.
Stop aggressive interindividual attacks and intergroup attacks ; can transform inimical realtionships into amicable ones ; they have also discovered ; that love begets love and hate generates hate ; that love can tangibly influence international policy and pacify international conflicts ; that love is a life-giving force, necessary for physical, mental and moral health ; that altruistic persons live longer than egoistic ones ; that children deprived of love tend to become morally and socially defective ; that love is a powerful antidote against criminal, morbid, and suicidal tendencies, against hate, fear, and psycho-neuroses ; that love performs important cognitive and aesthetic functions ; that it is the loftiest and most effective education force for the enlightenment and moral ennoblement of humanity ; that it is the heart and soul of freedom and of all main moral and religious values ; that a minimum of love is absolutely necessary for the continuing existence of any society, and especially for a harmonious social order and for creative progress ; finally, that at the present catastrophic moment in history an increased “production, accumulation and circulation of love-energy” and a notable altruization of persons, groups, institutions, and culture is a necessary condition for the prevention of new wars and for alleviation of interindividual and intergroup strife.
For having set out , according to our supposition, with a symbolic age, an age in which man felt a great Reality behind all life which he sought through symbols, it will reach an age in which it will begin to live in that Reality, not convention or of the individual reason and intellectual will, but in our own highest nature which will be the nature of that Reality fulfilled in the conditions—not necessarily the same as now—of terrestrial existence.
The universe comes to the individual as Life—a dynamism the entire secret of which he has to master and a mass of colliding results, a whirl of potential energies out of which he has to disengage some supreme order and some yet unrealized harmony. This is after all the real sense of a man’s progress. It is not merely a restatement in slightly different terms of what physical Nature has already accomplished. Nor can the ideal of human life be simply the animal repeated on a higher scal of mentality. Otherwise, any system or order which assured a tolerable well-being and a moderate mental satisfaction would have stayed our advance. The animal is satisfied with a modicum of necessity ; the gods are content with their splendors. But man cannot rest permanently until he reaches some highest good. He is the greatest of living beings because he is the most discontented, because he feels most the pressure of limitations. He alone, perhaps, is capable of being seized by the divine frenzy for a remote ideal.
The chief aim of education should be to help the growing soul to draw out that in itself which is best and make it perfect for a noble use . . . The third principle of education is to work from the near to the far, from that which is to that which shall be.
The idea by which the enlightenment of Europe has been governed is the passion for the discovery of Truth and Law that constitutes existence and governs the process of the world, the attempt to develop the life and potentialites of man, his ideals, institutions, organization by the knowledge of that Law and Truth and the confidence that along with this line lies the road of human progress and perfection.
The idea by which the illumination of Asia has been governed is the firm knowledge that truth of the Spirit is the sole real truth, the belief that the psychological life of man is an instrument for attaining to the truth of the Spirit and that its laws must be known and practiced with that aim paramount, and the attempt to form the external life of man and the institutions of society into a suitable mold for the great endeavor.
Truth in the Supermind is self-found or self-existent. It is an arrow from the Light, not a bridge to reach it. Cease inwardly from thought and word, be motionless within you, look upward into the light and outward into the vast cosmic consciousness that is around you. Be more and more one with the brightness and the vastness. Then will Truth dawn on you from above and flow into you from all around you. But only if the mind is no less intense in its purity than its silence.
Character is a habit. It is created through the daily choice of right and wrong. It is a moral quality which grows gradually to maturity. It does not appear suddenly.
Tact and diplomacy. Tolerance for ambiguity. Reliability and loyalty. Diligence and quality. Regard for others.
Nothing should be neglected to make the battle order stronger, man stronger.
Above all things, be on the alert for opportunity.
The long twentieth century is nothing but the latest link in a chain of partly overlapping stages, each encompassed by a long century, through which the European capitalist world-economy has come to incorporate the entire globe in a dense system of exchanges.
“The managers of the global corporations are seeking to put into practice a theory of human organization that will profoundly alter the nation-state system around which society has been organized for over 400 years. What they are demanding in essence is the right to transcend the nation-state, and in the process, transform it.”
“I have long dreamed to buy an island owned by no nation . . . and of establishing the World Headquarters of the Dow Company on the truly neutral ground of such an island, beholden to no nation or society. If we were located on such truly neutral ground we could then really operate in the United States as U.S. citizens, in Japan as Japanese citizens, and in Brazil as Brazilians rather than being governed in prime by laws of the United States . . . We could even pay any natives handsomely to move elsewhere.”
“Full-blooded”, classical capitalism is based upon “full-blooded” private property, which means the right to possess, to use, to manage, and to dispose of the owned thing. In the governmentally managed economy, the officials are nto the owners of the national property they control ; the owner is the nation and the government is only the manger of the nation’s property. Similarly, in the corporation economy the board of directors that manages it is not the owner of the total property of a big corporation ; in some two hundred of the biggest corporations in the United States, none of the directors owns even five per cent of the property of the corporation. The owners are tens and hundreds of thousands of holders of the shares of stocks of these corporations. An overwhelming majority of these owners neither manages nor disposes of the corporation’s property. These functions are discharged by the board of directors of each corporation who, like the officials, are not its owners. In the governmentally managed and the corporation economy we have a basic split of “full-blooded” property ; those who own do not manage, those who manage do not own. This basic difference from the classical type of full ownership upon which the capitalist system was based makes the governmentally managed and the corporation economies fundamentally different from classical capitalism (with which—intentionally or not—the corporation economy is still mistakenly identified, especially by corporation bosses who speak of it as “free enterprise” or “the capitalist economy.”)
The corporation economy does not formally exist in Soviet Russia. In fact, however, the American corporate economy is a twin brother of the corresponding subdivisions of the nationalized industry in Russia. The total nationalized industry in Russia is divided, as in the United States, into big divisions of steel-oil-construction and other industries, each division being managed by its board of governmental directors, similar to the board of directors of a big American corporation. Neither of these boards, as was mentioned before, owns the corporation and its property. The only difference between these boards is that in Russia the directors are appointed by the government and are responsible to the government and the nation while in the United States diretors and big executives are presumably appointed or elected by the thousands of owners, that is, the stockholders of the corporation, and are responsible to them. Factually they are placed in their position by the small, often self-perpetuating, oligarchic group of the bigger shareholders and executives. A previous study of American corporations by G. Means and A. Berle (The Modern Corporation and Private Property, New York, 1932) and the recent study by several experts (E.S. Mason, ed., The Corporation in Modern Society, Cambridge, 1960) show that in none of the big American corporations do the directors own even five per cent of its property and that this largest sector of the American economy and, indirectly, of the economy of free enterprise is practically managed and controlled—quite independently from its stockholders—by some one thousand big executives. These features of the American corporation economy make it indeed very similar to the Russian “nationalized economy of corporations”, which is ruled and managed by about the same one thousand big executives of the government. Furthermore, the board of directors of this sector of the economy determines the prices of their products and the wages of their employees. In classical capitalism the prices were determined by “the law of supply and demand” in a free competitve market. This characteristic has largely disappeared from the economy of both countries. The American economy based upon corporations has now entered the phase of « administered prices » arbitrarily determined by the agreement of the big executives of the big corporations.
These conventional spaces-of-places continue to engage in external economic relations with one another, which we continue to call trade, foreign investment, and the like, and which are more or less effectively mediated by the State. In the nonterritorial global economic region, however, the conventional distinctions between internal and external are exceedingly problematic, and any given state is but one constraint in corporate global strategic calculations.
The evolution of the institutions of the Mercantile Economy is largely a matter of finding ways of diminshing risks.
The replacement of the market by the authoritative determination of prices and of the amounts to be sold and bought at these prices so essential to industrial planning can occur in three ways : by “controlling”, by “suspending” and by “superseding” the market. The market is controlled when the independence of action of those to whom the planning unit sells or from whom it buys is reduced or eliminated. Formally. The process of buying and selling remains intact, but the large market share of a particular unit or groups of units ensures a highly cooperative posture on the part of suppliers and/or customers. “The option of eliminating a market is an important source of power for controlling it.” (Galbraith 1985 ; 29-30) The market is suspended when the planning unit enters into contracts, specifying prices and amounts to be provided and bought over long periods of time. A matrix of contracts thus comes into existence “by which each firm eliminates market uncertainty for other firms and, in turn, gives them some of its uncertainty.” Although at all times and places business enterprises enter into open or tacit agreements of this kind, the main agencies in the suspension of markets have been governments engaged in the procurement and development of means of war- and state-making. “Here the state guarantees a price sufficient, with suitable margin, to cover costs. And it undertakes to buy what is produced or to compensate fully in the case of contract cancellation, technical failure or absence of demand. Thus, effectively, it suspends the market with all its associated uncertainty.” (Galbraith 1985 : 31-2) Finally, the market is superseded by vertical integration. “The planning unit takes over the source of supply or the outlet ; a transaction that is subject to bargaining over prices and amounts is thus replaced with a transfer within the planning unit.”
Indeed, most of the really big money is inherited—and by a portion of the population that is so miniscule as to be judged statistically insignificant by economists.
The socio-economic status of one’s family is the greatest single determinant of one’s own life chances.
Entire communities, countries, even continents, as in the case of sub-Saharan Africa, have been declared “redundant”, superfluous to the changing economy of capital accumulation on a world scale.
The Council is at the heart of what is called the Establishment and we are at the heart of the Council.
Membership is no longer a reward for success as much as it is a prerequisite for major success.
The development of historical capitalism as a world system has been based on the formation of ever more powerful cosmopolitan-imperial (or corporate-national) blocs of governemental and business organizations endowed with the capability of widening (or deepening) the functional and spatial scope of the capitalist world-economy. And yet, the more powerful these blocs have become, the shorter the lifecycle of the regimes of accumulation that they have brought into being—the shorter, that is, the time that it has taken for these regimes to emerge out of the crisis of the preceding dominant regime, to become themselves dominant, and to attain their limits as signalled by the beginning of a new financial expansion. In the case of the British regime, this time was 130 years, or about 40 per cent less than it had been for the Genoese regime ; and in the case of the US regime it was 100 years, or about 45 per cent less than for the Dutch regime.
The rise of the contemporary free enterprise system as the dominant structure of the capitalist world-economy constitutes the latest stage of a six-centuries-long process of differentiation of business enterprises from governments. Following Frederic Lane, we can distinguish between these two kinds of organizations which use war, the police force, and judicial procedures, supplemented by appeals to moral sentiments, as characteristic means of attaining their objectives, and which bring into existence systems of law and allegiance.
The real function of the police is social control.
It is common knowledge on the inner-city streets that the cops are among the biggest distributors of narcotics.
A power lusting mediocrity is not likely to judge his benefactors too harshly or inquire diligently into the nature of the power structure that brought him what he fears was undeserved success.
The Communist Manifesto’s definition of the capitalist state : “but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie.”
Ruling elites use both conspiratorial covert actions and overtly legitimating procedures at home and abroad. They finance everything from electoral campaigns and publishing houses to mobsters and death squads. They utilize every conceivable strategem, including killing one of their own if they perceive him to be a barrier to their larger agenda of making the world safe for those who own it.
What capitalist groups could no longer invest profitably in trade, they now invested in the hostile takeover of the markets or of the territories of competitors both as an end in itself and as a means to appropriate the assets and the future revenues of the state within which they operated.
However, our rulers cannot ask the U.S. public to sacrifice their tax dollers and the lives of their sons for Exxon and Chase Manhattan, for the profit system as such, so they tell us that the interventions are for freedom and national security and the protection of unspecified “U.S. interests.”
“ . . . ambition has so penetrated my whole being that it is a necessary element in my life, like the blood in my veins or the air that I breathe.”
Foreign aid should always be contingent on the purchase of goods, usually military hardware, that only our entourage of firms can provide.
A populist, reformist government overthrown by a reactionary military armed and abetted by the U.S. national security state, accompanied by massive executions, murders, torture, and imprisonment of those deemed guilty of reformist inclinations, massive corruption by the new military autocrats, privatization of public properties, widespread plunder of natural resources and ecological preserves, the suppression of wages, a surge in unemployment, the reintroduction of foreign finance and loans, and an explosion of the national debt under arrangements worked out by the International Monetary Fund and related institutions.
It is the nature of war that what is beneficial to you is detrimental to the enemy and what is of service to him always hurts you. It is therefore a maxim never to do, or omit doing, anything as consequence of his actions, but to consult invariably your own interest only.
If neither religious nor ethical, nor juridical values controls our conduct what then remains ? Nothing but naked force and fraud.
A shift of the creative leadership of mankind from Europe and the European West, where it has been centered during the last five centuries, to a wider area of the Pacific and the Atlantic, particularly the Americas, Asia and Africa ; second, a continued disintegration of the hitherto predominant sensate man, culture, society, and system of values ; third, the emergence and slow growth of the first components of a new—integral—order, system of values, and type of personality.
“Labor” stands for human activity, an entity inseparable from life itself, which in turn is not produced in order to be sold on the market but for altogether different reasons ; “land” stands for the natural environment of human life and activity, a gift of geography and history and, as such, something that present generations inherit rather than produce ; and “money” stands for tokens of purchasing power (means of payment), which, as a rule, come into being through the mecanisms of banking and state finance and, as such, are “produced” only “metaphorically.” In short, the commodity nature of land, labor and money is purely fictitious.
What capitalists really mean when they talk about « putting their money to work » is that they are putting human labor to work, paying workers less in wages and salaires than they produce in value, thereby siphoning off the surplus for themselves.
Typically, in an eight-hour workday, the value of the products that workers create in the first two hours of labor will equal their wages. For the remaining six hours, they are performing surplus labor time, creating surplus value that is taken in by the shareholders, bondholders, and others who do not work. It is from this surplus value (or “added value” as management would say) that the corporate capitalists make their profits, after paying off overhead costs, interest on loans, advertising fees, and what little taxes they sometimes pay.
Again—it cannot be said too often—profits are what you make when not working. This explains why, in most instances, the secret to getting rich is not to work hard but to get others to work hard for you.
We are essentially the people with capital and those who have capital always share the activity of brains and muscles of other countries.
Fundamental questions about the use of state power in the service of corporate class interests at home and abroad.
Assumed he was imagining a conspiracy because he ascribed self-interested collusion to powerful people.
No spatial provision for an extreme Center.
The dissident politcal offering is readily identified disparagingly as “agitprop” and “preachy.”
The « iron law of bourgeois politics » : when change threatens to rule, then the rules are changed.
One should know one’s enemies, their alliances, their resources, and the nature of their country in order to plan a campaign. One should know what to expect of one’s friends, what resources one has oneself, and see the future effects to determine what one has to fear or hope from political maneuvers.
There is an exercise in this connection which gives great suppleness and elevation to thought. It is as follows : A clearly formulated theses is set ; against it is opposed the antithesis, formulated with the same precision. Then by careful reflection the problem must be widened or transcended so that a synthesis is found which unites the two contraries in a larger, higher and more comprehensive idea.
In intensity pschological-behavioral-social love ranges from zero to infinity, from a rich man’s giving a few cents to the hungry, or a purely verbal high-faluntin « love », up to a willing sacrifice of one’s life—“body and soul”--for the well-being of the loved person. In intensity love ranges from the zero point of love of oneself (egotism) up to the love of all mankind, all living creatures, and of the whole universe. In duration altruistic love ranges from the shortest possible moment to years, decades, often throughout the whole life of an individual or group. In purity love varies from the pure love motivated exclusively by love for love’s sake, or by the love of a person for the person’s sake, regardless of any utilitarian or hedonistic motives, down to the “soiled love” motivated by selfish expectations of advantage, utility, pleasure, or profit from such an « impure » love. Pure love knows no bargain, no reward. It asks nothing in return. Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount and St.Paul’s Epistle (I Corinthians 13) beautifully decribe this sublime love. All forms of a “bargaining love”, including heterosexual love in which the sex-partner is loved only because he or she gives pleasure or gratification, are examples of “impure love.” Sometimes such a love becomes devoid of altruistic elements and degenerates into a relationship of enmity and hate. Adequacy of love fluctuates from “blind” to « wise » love. In adequate love there is always a discrapency between the subjective motives and purposes of love and the objective consequences of the unwise or inadequate actions through which love is realized. A mother may passionately love her child and may be ready to sacrifice anything for the child’s welfare, but by realizing her love through wrong actions and means, she may spoil the child and endanger his well-being. All forms of such blind love are principally due to a lack of scientific knowledge as to what actions and means can or cannot produce the intended effects in the loved persons. Even the purest and most intense love can be blind if it manifests itself in scientifically wrong actions.
Put it right at once !
“A military decision must be determined by the burning desire to beat the enemy and not by the wish to avoid defeat.”
He who will win everything, must dare staking everything on one single card.
Knowledge is the only kind of wealth that multiplies when you give it away.
The lie is the essential produce of the world of alienation, and the most effective killer of revolutions.
We must destroy the spectacle itself, the whole apparatus of commodity society, if we are to realize human needs. We must abolish those pseudo-needs and false desires which the system manufactures daily in order to preserve its power.
“Although in most cases the camera does not lie directly, it can lie brilliantly by omission.” Where the producer deliberately sets out to be unbalanced, the scope for mischief, wrapped in respectability, is considerable.
And no one is more political than those who instinctively know how to avoid politically troubling realities.
Truth is nothing more or less than one expert’s perception. And who is the expert ? It’s someone who is perceived to be an expert in the mind of somebody else.
Film making remains an enterprise open only to a relatively select few.
An editor exercises judgement on journalists’ work without seeing the circumstances of their reports first-hand. As a result, some copy is amended, some is shown out of its original intended context, and some news never reaches the presses or the transmitter. Anticipating this, journalists shape their texts accordingly ; the more dramatic a report can be made, the more likely it is to be shown. The conditions of editing and presenting television news also have a significant influence on its contents. All but broadcasts of the most seismic events are driven by rigid timetables of allotted television transmission times. Thus, the construction of a news story is tugged into shape by an agenda that is not necessarily connected to the natural rhythm of the unfolding story. This leads to speculation in the absence of fact-in-time, and the wrong emphasis is given to the trivial and the momentous is missed or downgraded in importance. Again there may be no intention to deceive on the part of journalists and editors, but circumstances conspire to make that a strong possibility, especially when reporting something as dramatic, but unpredictable and uncertain, as war.
To deny the possiblity of false consciousness is to assume there has been no indoctrination, no socialization to conservative values, no limitation of the topics to be considered in the national debate, no predetermination of issue agendas, and that a whole array of powers have not helped prestructure how we see and define our own interests and options. In fact, no overt conflict exists between rulers and ruled, this may be because of one or more of the following reasons : consensus satisfaction : citizens are content with things because their interests are being served ; antipathy and lack of perception : people are indifferent to political matters, preoccupied with other things, they do not see the link between issues of the polity and their own well-being ; discouragement and fear : people are dissatisfied but acquiesce reluctantly because they do not see the possiblity of change or they fear that change will only make things worse or they fear for the repression that will be delivered upon them if they become active ; false consciousness : people accept the status quo out of lack of awareness that viable alternatives exist and out of ignorance.
They are free to say what they like only as long as their bosses like what they say. They are free to produce what they want if their product remains within acceptable political boundaries. You will have no sensation of a leash around your neck if you sit by the peg. It is only when you stray.
The media’s view of the world is much the same as the view from the State Department and the Pentagon.
People and organizations often organize knowledge concentrically, with the most cherished, vital beliefs at the protected center. At the outer edge are th eideas which the majority rejects. A little closer to the center are the fringes—areas not yet legitimized but not utterly rejected by the center either. Innovation is the center’s weakness. The structure, the power, and the institutional inertia all tend to inhibit innovative thinkers and drive them to the fringes. At the social and intellectual fringes, thinkers are freer to let their imaginations roam, but are still constrained by a sense of current reality. The great innovators start at the fringes.
The mass media are class media.
They are listened to by many not because they are so appealing but because they are so available. Availability is the first necessary condition of consumption. In this manner, supply does not merely satisfy demand ; supply creates demand.
The entertainment industry does not merely give the people what they want ; it is busy shaping those wants.
Human mental prowess and communicative powers have merely provided superb elaboration on nature’s old theme of fraud, and added its own distinctive feature : self-delusion.
The human brain much more readily accepts information or itnelligence which supports one’s preconceived ideas, rather than that which contradicts them.
The dupes of their preconception.
Routine and prejudice, the natural result of ignorance, are its foundation and support.
Rarely if ever do they invite the public to consider whether it actually is the welfare mothers or illegal immigrants who bring us record deficits, war, swollen military budgets, high taxes, poverty, urban blight, inflation, crime, unemployment, and environmental devestation.
The primary purpose of public education is to inculcate the idea that our crucial institutions of coercion and monopoly were created for the public good by popular national heroes to blunt the past power of the malefactors of great wealth.
Capital was able to strike a new bargain with labor : in return for the mass production of a new class of manipulable consumers, the worker was offered a role which gave him full membership of the spectacular society.
The mass needs, and we give it, leaders who have the firmness and decision of command proceeding from habit and an entire faith in their unquestionable right to command as established by tradition, law and society.
Media production involves a lot more than just satisfying the public. The first audience a producer must please consists of the show’s financial backers, its would-be corporate sponsors and studio and network bosses.
Their goal is not partial control but perfect control, not an overbearing advantage (which they already have) but total dominance of the communicative universe. Anything short of unanimous support for a rightest agenda is treated as evidence of liberal bias.
Much of what has been said about entertainment is true of the entire political universe.
The network evening news regularly reports the Dow Jones average but offers no weekly tabulations on lay-offs, industrial accidents and long-term occupational illness.
We must push for more not-for-profit economic development, more democratic ownership of productive forces and services, more ideological variety and dissidence in the mainstream media, more listener-controlled access to radio and television stations.
Contrary to what network and studio bosses think, audiences do not eschew controversial themes.
A great committment to the moral and philisophical elements of character, an emphasis that has been lacking up until now in the training of most managers.
His extreme alienation can only be fought through the struggle against this whole society.
Let us repeat now, what we said at the beginning of this study. Man does not enter battle to fight, but for victory. He does everything he can to avoid the first and obtain the second. The continued improvement of all appliances of war has no other goal than the annihilation of the enemy. Absolute bravery, which does not refuse battle even on unequal terms, trusting only to God or to destiny, is not natural in man ; it is the result of moral culture. It is infinitely rare, because in the face of danger the animal sense of self-preservation always gains the upper hand. Man calculates his chances, with what errors we are about to see. Now, man has a horror of death. In the bravest, a sense of duty, which they alone are capable of understanding and living up to, is paramount. But the mass always cowers at the sight of the phantom, death. Discipline is for the purpose of dominating that horror by a still greater horror, that of punishment or disgrace. But there always comes an instant when natural horror gets an upper hand over discipline, and the fighter flees.
War in its ensemble is not a science, but an art. Strategy, particularly, may be regulated by fixed laws resembling those of the positive sciences, but this is not true of war viewed as a whole. Among other things, combats may often be quite independent of scientific combinations ; they may become essentially dramatic ; personal qualities and inspirations and a thousand other things frequently are the controlling elements. The passions which agitate the masses that are brought into collusion, the warlike qualities of these groups, the energy and talent of their commanders, the more or less martial spirit of nations and epochs—in a word, everything that can be called the poetry and metaphysics of war—will have a permanent influence on its results.
Always presume the enemy has dangerous designs and always be forehanded with the remedy. But do not let these calculations make you timid. Circumspection is good only to a certain point. A rule that I practice myself and which I have always found good is that in order to have rest oneself it is necessary to keep the enemy occupied.
The man who does things without motive or inspite of himself is either insane or a fool. War is decided only by battles, and it is not finished except by them. Thus they have to be fought, but it should be opportunely and with all the advantages on your side.
The objective, offensive, mobility, security, surprise, concentration, economy of force and co-operation.
Surpassing the enemy in constancy and fortitude.
“Physical exertions must be undertaken not so much to train the body as the mind.”
To be equal to such long-continued exertions, an officer must strengthen his body through a temperate life, and accustom himself to continuous mental labor.
“A strong mind is not one which is simply capable of strong exertion. It is one which, in the midst of the strongest exertions, can maintain its equilibrium, so that in spite of internal tumult, power of decision and insight remain as steadfast as the needle of the compass, which, regardless of the tossing of the ship, retains its accuracy.”
The first determining element of the Siddhi is, therefore, the intensity of the turning, the force which directs the soul inward. The power of aspiration of the heart, the force of the will, the concentration of the mind, the perseverance and determination of the applied energy are the measure of that intensity.
The most essential qualities for a general will always be : first, a high moral courage, capable of great resolution ; second, a physical courage which takes no account of danger. His scientific or military acquirements are secondary to these. It is not necessary that he should be a man of vast erudition ; his knowledge may be limited but it should be thorough, and he should be perfectly grounded in the principles at the base of the art of war. Next in importance come the qualities of his personal character. A man who is gallant, just, firm, upright, capable of esteeming merit in others instead of being jealous of it, and skillful in making this merit add to his own glory, will always be a good general and may even pass for a great man.
Petty geniuses attempt to hold everything ; wise men hold fast to the most important resort. They parry the great blows and scorn the little accidents. There is an ancient apothegm : he who would preserve everything, preserves nothing. Therefore, always sacrifice the bagatelle and pursue the essential !
War is composed of nothing but accidents, and, although holding to general principles, a general should never lose sight of everything to enable him to profit from these accidents ; that is the mark of genius. In war there is but one favorable moment ; the great art is to seize it.
Success is composed of nothing more than taking advantage of accidents.
Finally, considering fortuitous events and the chapter of accidents, one can see that a general should be skillful and lucky and that no one should believe so fully in his star that he abandons himself to it blindly. If you are lucky and trust in luck alone, evven your success reduces you to the defensive ; if you are unlucky, you are already there.
A similiar form of preconceived misconception is the tendency to believe the enemy will think and therefore react as oneself. Thus it is assumed that an enemy would dismiss a particular course of action or option, simply because that is how we would react.
One who is seeking a profound understanding of the fundamentals of war, therefore, must understand esprit de corps.
Fear must be turned to terror in order to vanquish.
It is much easier to take men as they are than to make them as they should be ; it is difficult to reconcile opinions, prejudices and passions.
True wisdom, so far as a general is concerned, consists in energetic determination.
Application rectifies ideas but does not furnish a soul, for that is the work of nature.
There is nothing mind can do that cannot be better done in the mind’s immobility and thought-free stillness. When mind is still, the Truth gets her chance to be heard in the purity of silence. Truth cannot be attained by the Mind’s thought but only by identity and silent vision. Truth lives in the calm wordless Light of the eternal spaces ; she does not intervene in the noise and cackle of logical debate. Thought in the mind can at most be Truth’s brilliant and transparent garment ; it is not even her body.
Good things come to those who sacrifice.
This energy of love appears to be an infinite universe which is inexhaustible qualitatively and quantitatively.
A total critique of the world is the guarantee of the realism and reality of a revolutionary organization. To tolerate the existence of an oppressive social system in one place or another, simply because it is packaged and sold as revolutionary, is to condone universal oppression. To accept alienation as inevitable in any one domain of social life is to resign oneself to reification in all its forms.
A radical critique of the modern world must have the totality as its object and objective. Its searchlight must reveal the world’s real past, its present existence and prospects for its transformation to an indivisible whole.
The problem is not that revolutionaries accumulate power but that they use power to pursue substantive policies that are unacceptable to U.S. ruling circles. What bothers our political leaders (and generals, investment bankers, and corporate heads) is not the supposed lack of political democracy in these countries but their attempts to construct economic democracy, to depart from the impoverishing rigors of the international free market, to use capital and labor in a way that is inimical to the interests of multi-national corporatism.
The great majority of the ruled, and even most of the visible leaders, believe themselves to be fairly autonomous. If harried, members of a pluralistic society. Nearly everyone believes major decisions to be the vector sum of autonomous pressures exerted by business, labor, government, consumers, social classes, and other special interests. In fact, the vectors of societal power are carefully balanced by us so that any net movement is in a direction chosen by us.
A matter of putting the masses of people at home and abroad back in their place, divested of any aspirations for a better world because they are struggling too hard to survive in this one.
The epochal struggle between the increasingly sterile and destructive forces of the dying sensate order and the creative forces of the emerging, integral sociocultural order marks all of today’s culture and social life, and deeply affects the way of life of every one of us.
In brief, for millennia Euro-American peoples were “backward” in comparison with the leading peoples of Asia and Africa. The Western of Euro-American peoples were the last to assume the creative leadership of mankind. Roughly, only since the thirteenth century have they carried on « the torch of creativity », mainly in the fields of science, technology, fine arts, philosophy, economics and politics. In these fields they have discharged their creative mission magnificently during the last five or six centuries. Their unprecedented and unrivaled scientific and technological achievements have made Europe and the Europeanized Americas the veritable center of human history during this period. They justifiably have made Euro-American civilizations and people temporarily superior to the civilizations and peoples of Asia and Africa. These achievements have also permitted the Euro-American peoples to invade, to subjugate, and to exploit the Afro-Asian populations. The impact of Western scientific, technological, economic, and political civilizations upon the Afro-Asian cultures and peoples has been irresistible and overwhelming. From now on, the history of mankind will tend more and more to be staged on the scene of the Asian-African-European-American theater. From now on, in the great “plays” of history there will be not merely one Euro-American “star” but the several stars of India, China, Japan, Russia, Arabia, and other cultures and peoples. This epochal trend is already under way and is rapidly growing from day to day.
A religion that is not the expressions of philosophic truth, degenerates into superstition and obscurantism, and a philosophy which does not dynamize itself with the religious spirit is a barren light, for it cannot get itself practiced. But again neither of these get their supreme value unless raised into the spirit and cast into life. What then shall be our ideal ? Unity for the human race by an inner oneness and not only by an external association of interests ; the resurgence of man out of the merely animal and economic life or the merely intellectual and aesthetic into the glories of the spiritual existence ; the pouring of the power of the spirit into the physical mould and mental instrument so that man may develop his manhood into that true supermanhood which shall exceed our present state as much as this exceeds the animal state from which Science tells us that we have issued. These three are one ; for man’s unity and man’s self-transcendence can come only by living in the Spirit.
It is not any exchange of forms that is required, but an interchange of regenerating impulses and a happy fusion and harmonizing. The synchronism and mutual interpenetration of the two great currents of human effort at such a crisis in the history of the race is full of hope for the future of humanity, but full also of possible dangers.
The Spirit in things is not apparent from the beginning, but self-betrayed in an increasing light of manifestation. We see the compressed powers of Nature start released from their original involution, disclose in a passion of work the secrets of their infinite capacity, press upon themselves and on the supporting inferior principle to subject its lower movement on which they are forced to depend into a higher working proper to their own type and feel their proper greatness in the greatness of their self-revealing effectuations. Life takes hold of matter and breathes into it the numberless figures of its abundant creative force, its subtle and variable patterns, its enthusiasm of birth and death and growth and act and response, its will of more and more complex organization of experience, its quivering search and feeling out after a self-consciousness of its own pleasure and pain and understanding gust of action ; mind seizes on life to make it an instrument for the wonders of will and intelligence ; soul possess and lifts mind through the attraction of beauty and good and wisdom and greatness towards the joy of some half-seen ideal and highest existence ; and in all this miraculous movement and these climbing greatnesses each step sets its foot on a higher rung and opens to a clearer, larger, and fuller scope and view of the always secret and always self-manifesting spirit in things. The eye fixed on the physical evolution has only the sight of a mechanical grandeur and subtlety of creation ; the evolution of life opening to mind, the evolution of mind opening to the soul of its own light and action, the evolution of soul out of the limited powers of mind to a resplendant blaze of the infinites of spiritual being are the more significant things, give us greater and subtler reaches of the self-disclosing Secrecy. The physical evolution is only an outward sign, the more and more complex and subtle development of a supporting structure, the growing exterior metre mould of form which is devised to sustain in matter the rising intonations of the spiritual harmony. The spiritual significance finds us as the notes rise ; but not till we get to the summit of the scale can we command the integral meaning of that for which all these first formal measures were made the outward lines, the sketch or the crude notation. Life itself is only a colored vehicle, physical birth a convenience for the greater and greater births of the Spirit.
Progressive liberation of power after power till the Spirit is self-disclosed and set free by knowledge and mastery of its works reposses the eternal fullness of its being which envelopes then and carries in its grasp the manifold and unified splendors of its nature.
The grace of love—both in the forms of loving and being loved—is the most important condition for newly born babies to grow into morally and mentally sound human beings.
To see clearly when he looks. To hear correctly when he listens. To think carefully when he speaks. To inquire critically when he doubts. To show respect when he serves. To maintain calm when he is challenged. To consider consequences when he decides. To create desirable results when he works. To do what is right when he acts.
What is most desirable is the balance of intelligence and ability with character and determination.
Dynamic, aggressive problem-solvers with highly developed relations skills! Subtle, sophisticated networkers who get the job done !
An ever-increasing portion of mankind is now earnestly endeavoring to build nobler and better forms of political organization and social life, and is succeeding in this task to a considerable extent.
All people have value.
Much of history is a chronicle of human attrocities.
The new theories have convincingly shown that the factor of mutual aid, cooperation and unselfish love has been at least as important an element of biological evolution as has been the struggle for existence ; that the role of mutual aid and friendly cooperation has been incomparable greater in human progress than the role of inimical rivalry and violent coercion. These new theories have shown further that in hsi sound and ceative behavior man is determined by sympathy, benevolence and unselfish love as much as by egoistic motives, hate, and sadistic impulses ; and that the energy of this love is indispensable for the generation, continuity, and growth of living forms, for the survival and physical health of infants, and for their growth into mentally and morally sound citizens.
Among other things, this brief analysis shows that the new rising sociocultural order promises to give a spontaneous unification of religion, philosophy, science, ethics, and fine arts into one integrated system of the supreme values of Truth, Goodness and Beauty.
The common initial purpose fo all Yoga is the liberation of the soul of man from its present natural ignorance and limitation, its release into spiritual being, its union with the highest self and Divinity. But ordinarily this is made not only the initial but the whole and final object : the enjoyment of spiritual being there is, but either in a dissolution of the human and individual into the silence of self-being or on a higher plan in another existence. The Tantric system makes liberation the final, but not the only aim ; it takes on its way a full perfection and enjoyment of the spiritual power, light and joy in the human existence, and even it has a glimpse of a supreme experience inwhich liberation and cosmic action and enjoyment are unified in a final overcoming of all oppositions and dissonances. It is this wider view of our spiritual potentialities from which we begin, but we add another stress which brings in a completer significance. We regard the spirit in man not as solely an individual being traveling to a transcendent unity with the Divine, but as a universal being capable of oneness with the Divine in all souls and all Nature and we give this extended view its entire practical consequence. The human soul’s individual liberation and enjoyment of union with the Divine in spiritual being, consciousness and delight must always be the first object of the Yoga ; it free enjoyment of the cosmic unity of the Divine becomes a second object ; but out of that a third appears, the effectuation of the meaning of the divine unity with all beings by a sympathy and participation in the spiritual purpose of the Divine in humanity. The individual Yoga then turns from its separateness and becomes a part of the collective Yoga of the divine Nature in the human race. The liberated individual being, united with the Divine in self and spirit, becomes in his natural being a self-perfecting instrument for the perfect outflowering of the Divine in humanity.
The conversion its action will effect is an integral conversion of our ethical being into the Truth and Right of the divine nature, of our intellectual into the illumination of divine knowledge, our emotional into the divine love and unity, our dynamic and volitional into a working of the divine power, our aesthetic into a plenary reception and a creative enjoyment of divine beauty, not excluding even in the end a divine conversion of the vital and physical being. It regards all the previous life as an involuntary and unconscious or half-conscious prepatory growing towards this change and Yoga as the voluntary and conscious effort and relization of the change, by which all the aim of human existence in all its parts is fulfilled even while it is transfigured.
In this sense a solution might be sought, not perhaps a satisfying metaphysical solution for the logical mind,--for we are standing on the border-line of the unknowable, the ineffable and straining our eyes beyond,--but a sufficient basis in experience for the practice of the divine life. To do this we must dare to go below the clear surfaces of things on whcih the mind loves to dwell, to tempt the vast and obscure, to penetrate the unfathomable depths of consciousness and identify ourselves with states of being that are not our own.
Human language is a poor help in such a search, but at least we may find in it some symbols and figures, return with some just expressible hints which will help the light of the soul and throw upon the mind some reflection of the ineffable design.
Man’s greatness is not what he is, but what he makes possible. His glory is that he is the closed place and secret workshop of a living labor in which supermanhood is being made already by a divine Craftsman. But he is admitted too to a yet greater greatness and it is this that, allowed to be unlike the lower creation, he is partly an artisan of this divine change : his conscious assent, his consecrated will and participation are needed that into his body may descend the glory that will replace him. His aspiration is earth’s call to the supramental creator. If earth calls and the Supreme answers, the hour can be even now for that immense and glorious transformation.
We know that an evolution there is, but not what evolution is.
The system seems to moving “forward” and “backward” at the same time.
The only wisdom of life is in concentration, the only evil in looseness of thought.
Seek understanding like a thirsty man lost in the desert seeks water—with fearful determination.
Do the essential things well !
Most people are more impressed by dramatic events than by sober calculations and cold reasoning.
Never forget that no military leader has ever become great without audacity.
For war takes place in the realm of uncertainty, hence of surprise.
Man is capable of standing before only a certain amount of terror.
To resist this we must have faith in our own insight and convictions. At the time this often has the appearance of stubborness, but in reality it is that strength of mind and character which is called firmness.
TO REMAIN FAITHFUL THROUGHOUT TO THE PRINCIPLES WE HAVE LAID DOWN FOR OURSELVES.
However, how great courage, ability, tension are required to hold out in face of repeated critical situations.
He does not actually train the pupil’s mind, he only shows him how to perfect his instruments of knowledge and encourages him in the process. He does not impart knowledge to him he shows him how to acquire knowledge for himself . . . The second principle is that the mind has to be consulted in its own growth. The idea of hammering the child into shape desired by the parent or teacher is a barbarous and ignorant superstition. It is he himself who must be induced to expand in accordance with his own nature . . . Everyone has in him something divine, something his own, a chance of perfection and strenth in however small a sphere which God offers him to take or refuse.
Study widely ; inquire sincerely, adhere steadfastly to your principles.
This Infinite, this Spirit who is housed within us but not bound or shut in mind or body, is our own self and to find and be our self was, as the ancient sages knew, always the object of our human striving, for it is the object of the whole immense working of Nature.
It is spirit that wins. Spirit is the greatest single factor in success.
Only one thing is absolutely indispensable : the will to discover and realize.
“There are many things in life worse than dying.”
The world still belongs to the bold.
Exemplary human beings.
Heroes of love.